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  59. Research Indicates that physical discipline is not effective in achieving parents’ long-term goals of decreasing aggressive and defiant behavior in children or of promoting regulated and socially competent behavior in children. (Alampay, et al., 2017; Berlin et al., 2009; Campbell, Pierce, Moore, Marakovitz, & Newby, 1996; Cohen & Brook, 1995; Coley, Kull, & Carrano, 2014; Flouri & Midouhas, 2017; Grogan-Kaylor, 2004, 2005a; Gromoske & Maguire-Jack, 2012; Gunnoe & Mariner, 1997; Ma & Grogan-Kaylor, 2017; MacKenzie, Nicklas, Brooks-Gunn, & Waldfogel, 2015; Maguire-Jack, Gromoske, & Berger, 2012; Maneta, White, & Mezzacappa, 2017; Olson, Ewon Choe, & Sameroff; 2017; Olson, Lopez-Duran, Lunkenheimer, Chang, & Sameroff, 2011; Pagani et al., 2004; Paolucci & Violato, 2004; Piché, Huỳnh, Clément, & Durrant, 2016; Stormshak et al., 2000; Weiss, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1992).


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  1. Eric Glen Weyl, Puja Ohlhaver, Vitalik Buterin, “Decentralized Society: Finding Web3’s Soul,” May 10, 2022,
  2. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Estimates of the Population of the United States by Single Years of Age, Color, and Sex: 1900 to 1959 (Series P-25, No. 311); Estimates of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex, and Race: April 1, 1960, to July 1, 1973 (Series P-25, No. 519); Preliminary Estimates of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex, and Race: 1970 to 1981 (Series P-25, No. 917); and Intercensal Estimates for 1980–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2009. The data for 2010 to 2020 is based on the population estimates released for July 1, 2020. 

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